Comparison List


mTurquoise2 is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) cyan fluorescent protein published in 2012, derived from Aequorea victoria. It is reported to be a rapidly-maturing monomer with very low acid sensitivity.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Monomer Aequorea victoria 26.9 kDa -

FPbase ID: 7AV5G


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
434 474 30,000 0.93 27.9 3.1 33.5 4.0

mTurquoise2 OSER Measurements

% Normal Cells OSER/NE ratio Cell Type Reference
93.8 ± 1.0 (10000 cells) - HeLa Cranfill et al. (2016)
88.0 - - Meiresonne et al. (2019)


t1/2 (s) Power Light Mode In Cell Fusion ˚C Reference
90.0   Goedhart et al. (2012)

mTurquoise2 Sequence

mTurquoise2 was derived from mTurquoise with the following mutations: I146F
amino acid numbers relative to avGFP. show relative to mTurquoise



Deposited: ,


Structural analysis of mTurquoise unveiled one suboptimal residue, Ile146, which was targeted for further improvement... The X-ray structure of the the I146F mutant, dubbed mTurquoise2, reveals that the mutated residue contributes to an improved packing of the chromophore through many further van der Waals interactions. This increases the QY to 0.93, which is now the highest for a monomeric fluorescent protein.

Goedhart et al. (2012)

mTurquoise2 is an excellent fluorescent protein for imaging embryogenesis, allowing rapid and dynamic cellular processes (e.g. cleavage division) to be captured, while at the same time enabling long imaging sessions, with low photo-bleaching and limited photo toxicity.

DuBuc et al. (2014)

Thus, the stable and intense expression of mTurquoise2, either alone or in combination with other fluorescent reporters of infection in dual and triple infection experiments, does not appear to increase cytopathology of infected neurons

Hogue et al. (2018)

In mTurquoise2, the direction of the transition dipole moment is 4° from the line connecting the centers of the aromatic rings.

Myšková et al. (2020)

Expression of the cyan fluorescent proteins mTurquoise2 and mTFP*1 were easily differentiable from background fluorescence in wild-type (P < 0.001), with a quantitative comparison showing mTurquoise2 possessing the greatest relative intensity

Spencer et al. (2020)

Notably, when both mTurquoise2 and mNeonGreen donors were included simultaneously, double-labeled cells could be found, which appeared to be capable of dividing (Figure 4—figure supplement 1), indicating that FP labeling does not affect cell viability in diploid CRISPIEd cells

Zhong et al. (2021)

Remarkably, introducing the super-folder GFP mutations (S30R, Y39N, N105T, and I171V) into mTurquoise2 yielded no apparent beneficial folding characteristics in either bacteria or mammalian cells, while the spectral properties were unchanged (Goedhart, unpublished observation).

Primary Reference

Additional References

  1. Two-Photon Excitation Spectra of Various Fluorescent Proteins within a Broad Excitation Range

    Leben R, Lindquist Rl, Hauser Ae, Niesner R, Rakhymzhan A

    (2022). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(21) , 13407. doi: 10.3390/ijms232113407. Article

  2. Directionality of light absorption and emission in representative fluorescent proteins

    Myšková J, Rybakova O, Brynda J, Khoroshyy P, Bondar A, Lazar J

    (2020). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(51) , 32395-32401. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2017379117. Article   Pubmed

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