Comparison List


Clover is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) green/yellow fluorescent protein published in 2012, derived from Aequorea victoria. It is reported to be a rapidly-maturing weak dimer with high acid sensitivity.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Weak dimer Aequorea victoria 26.8 kDa -

FPbase ID: 4Z641


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
505 515 111,000 0.76 84.36 6.2 30.0 3.2

Clover OSER Measurements

% Normal Cells OSER/NE ratio Cell Type Reference
72.9 ± 5.5 (10000 cells) - HeLa Cranfill et al. (2016)
72.9 ± 5.5 (10000 cells) - HeLa Shaner et al. (2013)


t1/2 (s) Power Light Mode In Cell Fusion ˚C Reference
50.0   Shaner et al. (2013)

Clover Sequence

Clover was derived from avGFP with the following mutations: M1_S2insV/S30R/Y39N/S65G/Q69A/F99S/N105T/Y145F/M153T/V163A/I171V/T203H

GenBank: AFR60231
IPG: 30275454


Deposited: ,


With a completely deprotonated chromophore at neutral pH (pKa = 6.1), Clover should be incapable of photoconversion despite the presence of His203, which enhances photoconversion in PA-GFP. Indeed, we observed no photoactivation of Clover in illumination conditions that produced more than threefold photoactivation of PA-GFP.

Lam et al. (2012)

Primary Reference

Additional References

  1. Two-Photon Excitation Spectra of Various Fluorescent Proteins within a Broad Excitation Range

    Leben R, Lindquist Rl, Hauser Ae, Niesner R, Rakhymzhan A

    (2022). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(21) , 13407. doi: 10.3390/ijms232113407. Article

External Resources

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