|State||Ex λ||Em λ||EC (M-1 cm-1)||QY||Brightness||pKa||Maturation (min)||Lifetime (ns)|
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To further reduce the residual dimerization tendency of mMaple2, we screened a series of mutations to residues that are predicted to be solvent-exposed near residues 111 and 198. We focused on charged residues and switched them to the opposite charge. One of the derivatives, with mutations E82R, D83K, and D197K, in addition to I111N and Y198A, exhibited undetectable dimerization tendency when fused to ClpP. This derivative, which we termed mMaple3, again had a similar photon budget to that of mMaple and even a lower on–off ratio compared with mMaple. Its signaling efficiency was only moderately reduced from those of mMaple or mMaple2.