Comparison List


KillerRed is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) red fluorescent protein published in 2005, derived from Anthoathecata.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Dimer Anthoathecata 26.4 kDa -


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
585 610 45,000 0.25 11.25      


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KillerRed Sequence

KillerRed was derived from anm2CP with the following mutations: V21E/D24G/I30V/K73R/N76D/T91S/G114D/I118V/K136R/T145N/S154P/C161A/Y162F/S175G/L181M/K190E/V199I/I201T/K205R/T220A/*231GextSDED

GenBank: AAY40168
UniProtKB: Q2TCH5
IPG: 4241616


Deposited: ,


Asn145 and Ala161 appeared to be indispensable for KillerRed's phototoxic effect, although other substitutions are also important.

Bulina et al. (2005)

We characterized KillerRed phototoxic activity as a function of irradiation time. KillerRed kills 96% of E. coli cells after 10 min and almost all cells after 20 min of irradiation with white light (1 W/cm2). We also verified that cell killing depends on the wavelength of the incident light. KillerRed demonstrated a strong cell killing effect in green light (540–580 nm) and almost no effect upon irradiation with blue light (460–490 nm) of equal intensity (35 mW/cm2).

Bulina et al. (2005)

Primary Reference

Additional References

  1. Structural basis for the phototoxicity of the fluorescent protein KillerRed

    Carpentier P, Violot S, Blanchoin L, Bourgeois D

    (2009). FEBS Letters, 583(17) , 2839-2842. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.07.041. Article   Pubmed

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