Comparison List


a.k.a. drFP583, discRFP, RFP, DsRed1

DsRed is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) red fluorescent protein published in 1999, derived from Discosoma sp.. It is reported to be a very slowly-maturing tetramer.
Aggregation Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Tetramer Discosoma sp. 25.9 kDa -


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
558 583 22,500 0.23 5.17   1600.0  


no photostability measurements available ... add one!

DsRed Sequence

GenBank: AAF03369
UniProtKB: Q9U6Y8
IPG: 836144


Deposited: ,


DsRed surprisingly takes days at room temperature to reach full red fluorescence. At room temperature, a sample of purified protein initially shows a major component of green fluorescence (ex/em 475/499 nm), which peaks in intensity around 7 h and decreases to nearly zero over 2 days. Meanwhile the red fluorescence reaches half its maximal fluorescence after approximately 27 h and requires >48 h to reach >90% of maximal fluorescence.

Baird et al. (2000)

Fully matured DsRed in our hands has an extinction coefficient of 75,000 and a fluorescence quantum yield of 0.7, much higher than the values of 22,500 and 0.23 previously reported. We have no explanation for the difference except that the lower values might have been measured on incompletely matured protein.

Baird et al. (2000)

Screening of random mutants produced mutants that appeared green or yellow and were caused by substitutions K83E, K83R, S197T, and Y120H. K83R had the lowest percentage conversion to red and proved very useful as a stable version of the immature green-fluorescing form of DsRed

Baird et al. (2000)

The red chromophore of DsRed results from the autonomous multi-step post-translational modification of residues Gln66, Tyr67 and Gly68 into an imidazolidinone heterocycle with p-hydroxybenzylidene and acylimine substituents.

Gross et al. (2000)

With purified DsRed1, we measured an extinction coefficient of 52,000 and a quantum yield of ∼0.7. Baird et al. (2000) reported a similar quantum yield but a higher extinction coefficient of 75,000; the reason for this discrepancy is unclear.

Bevis & Glick (2002)

Primary Reference

Additional References

  1. Rapidly maturing variants of the Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed)

    Bevis Bj, Glick Bs

    (2002). Nature Biotechnology, 20(1) , 83-87. doi: 10.1038/nbt0102-83. Article   Pubmed

  2. Diversity and evolution of the green fluorescent protein family

    Labas Ya, Gurskaya Ng, Yanushevich Yg, Fradkov Af, Lukyanov Ka, Lukyanov Sa, Matz Mv

    (2002). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(7) , 4256-4261. doi: 10.1073/pnas.062552299. Article   Pubmed

  3. The structural basis for red fluorescence in the tetrameric GFP homolog DsRed.

    Ranganathan R, Wall Ma, Socolich M

    (2000). Nature Structural Biology, 7(12) , 1133-1138. doi: 10.1038/81992. Article   Pubmed

  4. Biochemistry, mutagenesis, and oligomerization of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

    Baird Gs, Zacharias Da, Tsien Ry

    (2000). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(22) , 11984-11989. doi: 10.1073/pnas.97.22.11984. Article   Pubmed

  5. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

    Gross La, Baird Gs, Hoffman Rc, Baldridge Kk, Tsien Ry

    (2000). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(22) , 11990-11995. doi: 10.1073/pnas.97.22.11990. Article   Pubmed

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