Comparison List


a.k.a. 22Gm3

Dronpa is a photoswitchable green fluorescent protein published in 2004, derived from Echinophyllia sp. SC22. It is reported to be a rapidly-maturing monomer.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Monomer Echinophyllia sp. SC22 25.5 kDa -

FPbase ID: 7P38V


State Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
On 503 518 95,000 0.85 80.75   40.0 3.6


From To Switch λ
Off On 400
On Off 503


No photostability measurements available ... add one!

Dronpa Sequence

Dronpa was derived from 22G with the following mutations: I102N/F114Y/L162S/R194H/N205S/G218E

GenBank: BAD72874
IPG: 3892390


Deposited: ,


Based on the capacity of its fluorescence to vanish and reappear, 22Gm3 was renamed “Dronpa,” after “dron,” a ninja term for vanishing, and “pa,” which stands for photoactivation.

Ando (2004)

We found 22Gm3 to possess a distinctive photosensitivity. Strong excitation at around 490 nm appeared to bleach 22Gm3 more efficiently than other fluorescent proteins, and the bleached protein regained its green fluorescence completely with minimal irradiation at around 400 nm. We intermittently measured the absorbance of a solution containing 22Gm3 at pH 7.4 in a cuvette during continuous illumination at 490 ± 10 nm with a 75-W xenon lamp. After a 40-min incubation, nearly all the protein molecules had been converted into the neutral, nonfluorescent state. Illumination at 400 ± 7.5 nm for several minutes reversed the protein to its original fluorescent state. Thus, 22Gm3 has photochromic behavior, because its fluorescence can be switched on and off by using two different wavelengths of light.

Ando (2004)

Primary Reference

Regulated Fast Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Observed by Reversible Protein Highlighting

Ando R

(2004). Science, 306(5700) , 1370-1373. doi: 10.1126/science.1102506. Article   Pubmed

Additional References

  1. Structural characterization of the photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa-C62S

    Nam K-H, Kwon Oy, Sugiyama K, Lee W-H, Kim Yk, Song Hk, Kim Ee, Park S-Y, Jeon H, Hwang Ky

    (2007). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 354(4) , 962-967. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.01.086. Article   Pubmed

  2. From The Cover: Reversible single-molecule photoswitching in the GFP-like fluorescent protein Dronpa

    Habuchi S, Ando R, Dedecker P, Verheijen W, Mizuno H, Miyawaki A, Hofkens J

    (2005). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(27) , 9511-9516. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0500489102. Article   Pubmed

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