Comparison List


mRuby is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) red fluorescent protein published in 2009, derived from Entacmaea quadricolor. It has low acid sensitivity.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Monomer Entacmaea quadricolor 25.2 kDa -


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
558 605 112,000 0.35 39.2 4.4 168.0 2.6

mRuby OSER Measurements

% Normal Cells OSER/NE ratio Cell Type Reference
93.1 ± 2.1 (10000 cells) - HeLa Cranfill et al. (2016)


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mRuby Sequence

mRuby was derived from eqFP611 with the following mutations: M12K/M15L/Y22H/D31E/V46I/K67R/H72Y/T73P/F102I/K120Q/T122R/L147M/S158T/Q159H/N163K/Y169H/E175V/E185G/F187I/F192I/F194A/K207N/H214R/C222A/D223G/P225_L231delinsGGG



Deposited: ,


In HEK293 cells expressing monomeric eqFP611 variants, the red fluorescence was not evenly distributed but rather appeared as dot-like structures in the cytoplasm... A similar effect was noticed for eqFP611 dimers that had the A/C interface disrupted. This result suggested that exposure of the A/C interface may have made a subcellular targeting signal accessible. Indeed, sequence analysis revealed that amino acids 229GRL231 at the C terminus, and also the preceding triplet 226SKL228 may serve as a type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal... We succeeded in removing peroxisomal targeting by replacing the C-terminal sequence 222CDLPSKLGRL231 of eqFP611 by 222AGLGGG227 [in mRuby]

Kredel et al. (2009)

Analysed by flow cytometry, the fluorescence signal of living HEK293 cells expressing the codon optimized variant [of mRuby] was 5–8 fold increased in comparison to the predecessor with unaltered codon usage but identical amino acid sequence.

Kredel et al. (2009)

Primary Reference

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