Comparison List


mRuby is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) red fluorescent protein published in 2009, derived from Entacmaea quadricolor. It has low acid sensitivity.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Monomer Entacmaea quadricolor 25.2 kDa -

FPbase ID: 6KLAW


Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
558 605 112,000 0.35 39.2 4.4 168.0 2.6

mRuby OSER Measurements

% Normal Cells OSER/NE ratio Cell Type Reference
93.1 ± 2.1 (10000 cells) - HeLa Cranfill et al. (2016)


No photostability measurements available ... add one!

mRuby Sequence

mRuby was derived from eqFP611 with the following mutations: M12K/M15L/Y22H/D31E/V46I/K67R/H72Y/T73P/F102I/K120Q/T122R/L147M/S158T/Q159H/N163K/Y169H/E175V/E185G/F187I/F192I/F194A/K207N/H214R/C222A/D223G/P225_L231delinsGGG



Deposited: ,


In HEK293 cells expressing monomeric eqFP611 variants, the red fluorescence was not evenly distributed but rather appeared as dot-like structures in the cytoplasm... A similar effect was noticed for eqFP611 dimers that had the A/C interface disrupted. This result suggested that exposure of the A/C interface may have made a subcellular targeting signal accessible. Indeed, sequence analysis revealed that amino acids 229GRL231 at the C terminus, and also the preceding triplet 226SKL228 may serve as a type-1 peroxisomal targeting signal... We succeeded in removing peroxisomal targeting by replacing the C-terminal sequence 222CDLPSKLGRL231 of eqFP611 by 222AGLGGG227 [in mRuby]

Kredel et al. (2009)

Analysed by flow cytometry, the fluorescence signal of living HEK293 cells expressing the codon optimized variant [of mRuby] was 5–8 fold increased in comparison to the predecessor with unaltered codon usage but identical amino acid sequence.

Kredel et al. (2009)

Primary Reference

Additional References

    No additional references have been added.

External Resources

Change history

Something missing or incorrect? Submit a change Submit a change