Comparison List


a.k.a. DsRed.T1, T1

DsRed-Express is a basic (constitutively fluorescent) orange fluorescent protein published in 2002, derived from Discosoma sp.. It is reported to be a rapidly-maturing tetramer with low acid sensitivity.
Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Tetramer Discosoma sp. 25.7 kDa -



Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
554 586 30,100 0.42 12.64 4.8 42.0  


t1/2 (s) Power Light Mode In Cell Fusion ˚C Reference
71.0   Shaner et al. (2004)

DsRed-Express Sequence

DsRed-Express was derived from DsRed with the following mutations: R2A/K5E/N6D/T21S/H41T/N42Q/V44A/C117S/T217A

GenBank: GQ268961


DsRed.T1 is essentially identical to DsRed.T4, except that DsRed.T1 lacks cysteine residues and therefore might fold more efficiently in the oxidizing environment of the secretory pathway.

Bevis & Glick (2002)

To overcome the slow maturation of DsRed, we used random and directed mutagenesis to create variants that mature 10–15 times faster than the wild-type protein. An asparagine-to-glutamine substitution at position 42 greatly accelerates the maturation of DsRed, but also increases the level of green emission. Additional amino acid substitutions suppress this green emission while further accelerating the maturation.

Bevis & Glick (2002)

Primary Reference

Rapidly maturing variants of the Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed)

Bevis Bj, Glick Bs

(2002). Nature Biotechnology, 20(1) , 83-87. doi: 10.1038/nbt0102-83. Article   Pubmed

Additional References

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