Comparison List


a.k.a. Padron*

Padron(star) is a multistate green fluorescent protein published in 2008, derived from Echinophyllia sp. SC22.

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Oligomerization Organism Molecular Weight Cofactor
Monomer Echinophyllia sp. SC22 25.5 kDa -

FPbase ID: 31OK2


State Ex λ Em λ EC (M-1 cm-1) QY Brightness pKa Maturation (min) Lifetime (ns)
On 503 522          
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Padron(star) Sequence

Padron(star) was derived from Padron with the following mutations: I94H/I100S/L141R/Q222N



At 37 °C, Padron* behaves as a true monomer, although it has a slight tendency for dimerization at lower temperatures (∼15% dimer at 4 °C). The dimerization tendency was removed by exchanging hydrophobic amino acid residues that are located in potential dimer interfaces, namely Ile94, Ile100 and Leu141...The variant obtained [ Padron*(star) ] exhibits a slightly reduced dynamic range in the switchable signal (off-state fluorescence is 2% instead of 0.7% of the on-state signal), and its bleaching per cycle amounts to 3% instead of 2%. Hence Padron*(star) is particularly useful for applications at low temperatures; for most in vivo applications that require elevated temperatures, Padron* is superior.

Andresen et al. (2008)

Primary Reference

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